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LeaPFRogging PFR Implementations

Back in October of 2022, this announcement by AMI caught my eye. AMI has contributed a product named “Tektagon Open Edition” to the Open Compute Project (OCP).  Tektagon OpenEdition is an open-source Platform Root of Trust (PRoT) solution with foundational firmware security features that detect platform firmware corruption, recover the…

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Breaking Pedersen Hashes in Practice

The Pedersen hash function has gained popularity due to its efficiency in the arithmetic circuits used in zero-knowledge proof systems. Hash functions are a crucial primitive in cryptography, and zero-knowledge proof systems often make heavy use of them, for example when computing Merkle tree roots and paths. Instead of being…

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22nd March 2023

14 mins read

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A Race to Report a TOCTOU: Analysis of a Bug Collision in Intel SMM

About four months ago, in October 2022, I was idly poking around the “ICE TEA” leak. This leak was of particular interest to me, because it happened to expose the source code for Intel’s Alder Lake platform BIOS. It’s always fun to finally get to see the code for modules…

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Making New Connections – Leveraging Cisco AnyConnect Client to Drop and Run Payloads

The Cisco AnyConnect client has received a fair amount of scrutiny from the security community over the years, with a particular focus on leveraging the vpnagent.exe service for privilege escalation. A while ago, we started to look at whether AnyConnect could be used to deliver payloads during red team engagements…

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1st March 2023

9 mins read

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A Primer On Slowable Encoders

There is a specific type of cryptographic transformation that arises in storage-oriented blockchains. The transformation is a “slowable” 1-1 mapping which does not involve any secrets and is tradeoff-resistant in the following sense: it should not be possible to partially compute the function, store a fraction of the function’s state…

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Threat Spotlight – Hydra

This publication is part of our Annual Threat Monitor report that was released on the 8th of Febuary 2023. The Annual threat Monitor report can be found here. Authored by Alberto Segura Introduction Hydra, also known as BianLian, has been one of the most active mobile banking malware families in…

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Rustproofing Linux (Part 4/4 Shared Memory)

This is a four part blog post series that starts with Rustproofing Linux (Part 1/4 Leaking Addresses). Shared memory is often used to share data without the performance hit of copying. Whenever a shared resource is consumed by one component while being modified by another component, there is potential for…

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Rustproofing Linux (Part 3/4 Integer Overflows)

This is a four part blog post series that starts with Rustproofing Linux (Part 1/4 Leaking Addresses). In the C programming language, integer types can be a bit confusing. Portability issues can arise when the same code is used in multiple hardware architectures or operating systems. For example, int is…

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Security Code Review With ChatGPT

TL;DR: Don’t use ChatGPT for security code review. It’s not meant to be used that way, it doesn’t really work (although you might be fooled into thinking it does), and there are some other major problems that make it impractical. Also, both the CEO of OpenAI and ChatGPT itself say…

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Rustproofing Linux (Part 2/4 Race Conditions)

This is a four part blog post series that starts with Rustproofing Linux (Part 1/4 Leaking Addresses). This post uses a simple example to demonstrate a class of vulnerability that we encounter quite frequently when auditing kernel drivers and firmware. It’s a race condition, or more precisely a TOCTOU vulnerability.…

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